Masticatory system disorders

Author: Dr. Nhan Tam View: 677
The masticatory system is a whole, a functional unit that includes: the teeth and periodontium, the jawbone, the temporomandibular joint, the muscles involved in the movement of the lower jaw (jaw muscles), the lip-cheek-tongue system, the salivary gland system, the neuromuscular and vascular structures nourish, govern and maintain the functions of the above organs.

Introduction to the masticatory system

In humans, the masticatory system is a multifunctional system. Chewing functions including sucking, biting, mastication, and swallowing are often mentioned first. The functions "tools" and "weapons" are still present, but do not play a decisive role and no longer hold the role of a vital function. In addition to the original function of chewing, there are also important functions in various human activities such as speech function, communication function (including aesthetic function), and expression... to express verbal thinking, emotional expression, and other connections with nature, social communities, and specific people.

The functional activity of the masticatory system occurs with close coordination between the teeth of the two jaws, the jaw muscles, and the temporomandibular joints, reflecting a state of biological unity, expressed by effective responses. structural and functional efficiency in all components to ensure the maintenance of comfort and wellness for the masticatory system. Physiological adjustments aimed at regeneration and repair such as bone regeneration, tooth movement, functional status of jaw muscles, temporomandibular joints... take place not beyond the limits of ability. adaptability.

The relationship between components of the masticatory system depends not only on biological functional factors but also on morphological factors, food habits of the community, and individual chewing patterns; And this relationship cannot be separated from relations with the body, including physical, mental, emotional and social activities and conditions, whose levels of impact and interactions are different. varies greatly depending on the adaptability, perception, and threshold of feeling... between one individual and another. The principle that the body is a unified and unified block with the environment is expressed very richly in human activities and the interaction between the chewing system and other organ systems, especially with the human body. expressions of emotions, feelings, will…

This makes the abnormal physiology and pathology of the masticatory system extremely complicated, because of the involvement of factors that have nothing to do with chewing function and are not related to physical factors. Therefore, many disorders in the masticatory system are multifactorial and are considered psychosomatic disorders. The response and adaptability of each individual to the imperfect condition (which is very common) of the masticatory system varies greatly.

When the adaptive capacity of the masticatory system is excessive because of acute or chronic trauma, leading to dissonance or imbalance in the relationship between structural components, it is called masticatory system disorders.

Masticatory system disorders can vary widely from transient, unrecognizable manifestations to total impairment of function that greatly interferes with the individual's quality of life.

This is a problem that is getting more and more attention in most countries around the world. Studies have shown that temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ) account for a relatively high rate in the community in the past one or two decades. In the United States (1993), 22% of the population had at least one of the symptoms of RA. Canada (1995) is 30%. Sweden (1991) is 19%. Japan (1996) is 46%. Saudi Arabia (1995) was 30% with mild disorder and 6% with severe presentation in the temporomandibular joint.

In Vietnam, a study by Vo Dac Tuyen (1991) on 40 patients who came for examination and treatment at the Department of Odonto-Stomatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh City, showed that the sign with the highest proportion was a sound in the joints. , accounting for 75%, myalgia accounted for 50%, other manifestations such as pain in the ear accounted for 5%, tinnitus 12.5%, tinnitus with hearing loss 2.5%, and balance disorder 10%. Research by Ho Thi Ngoc Linh (2003) on 1,020 workers of Phong Phu Textile Company shows that the number of people showing signs of dyslexia accounts for a very high rate, up to 60.5%; The most detected sign was joint sound, 39.1%, then headache and neck-shoulder pain accounted for 9.4%.

Is temporomandibular joint disorder dangerous?

Temporomandibular joint disorders are a general term for disorders involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint, or both.

According to the American Dental Association (ADA), TMJ encompasses a variety of clinical disorders involving the masticatory system and the temporomandibular joint. TMJ is a subgroup of disorders of the musculoskeletal system of the body.

Recent studies have considered TMJ as a collection of disorders of the masticatory system with many common features, the most common symptom being pain, often in the masticatory muscle, in the preauricular region, or the temporomandibular joint. or both. Pain often increases when eating, chewing or moving the jaw. Patients may experience headache, ear pain, jaw pain, and facial pain. Other symptoms may accompany such as limitation of jaw movement, a crackling sound in the temporomandibular joint when opening or closing the mouth, etc.

In many cases, these disorders can be mild, transient, and resolve spontaneously without treatment. In other cases, the above symptoms get worse if not treated appropriately.