Overview of periodontal disease

Author: Dr. Nhan Tam View: 659
The cause of periodontal disease: plaque is the primary cause of periodontal disease, especially Gram-negative bacteria.

Overview of periodontal disease

The main component of plaque is bacteria.Bacteria are the primary cause of periodontal disease.Bacteria account for 90-95% of the weight of plaque.The remaining 5-10% include some host cells, organic molds and inorganic ions.

According to Dr. Vo Van Nhan, supragingival biofilm and subgingival biofilm are two basic types of plague. Most of the supragingival biofilm are aerobic and miscellaneous bacteria, while subgingival biofilm contains the majority of anaerobic bacteria.

The subgingival plaque biofilm has three zones: tooth-attached plaque, epithelial-attached plaque and unattached plaque. Tooth-attached plaque is bacteria that are attached to the cement, dentin and enamel. Epithelial-attached plaque is bacteria that are attached to the epithelium. Unattached plaque is free floating, unattached bacteria.

Tartar is calcified plaque that attaches to the enamel on the teeth as well as below the gum line. Plaque and inflammation can cause dark, brown or gray tartar. Plaque is usually accompanied with gingivitis and gum bleeding. When blood dries, it turns dark, brown or black in color. The gum was bleeding at some point in time, causing this color.

The main symptoms of gingivitis are hot, red, swollen and painful. Gingivitis is not necessarily a warning sign of periodontitis. Chronic gum disease can persist for a long time without causing periodontitis. That pathogens associated with bacteria and abnormal host responses can cause gingivitis becoming periodontitis.

Periodontitis is divided into two types:

  • Periodontal disease around the root tip is complications of tooth decay not treated.
  • Chronic periodontal inflammation is a complication of chronic gingivitis.


  • Periodontal disease around the top of the tooth root: toothache, tooth abscess, tooth decay.
  • Periodontalinflammation: red, soft, swollen, painful, bloody, sensitive when eat or drink cold or hot water. There may be pus at the root.


  • Periodontal disease around the root tip: drainage, cleaning and deep filling or deep tooth extraction.
  • Chronic periodontal inflammation: maintaining good oral hygiene, removing plaque and rejecting the inflammation are the best ways to prevent periodontal diseases. The loose teeth can be splinted or joined together like pickets in a fence so that any biting force is distributed among groups of teeth rather than individual loosened teeth.