Effects of diabetes on periodontal health
The most classic survey was conducted on the Pima Aboriginal group living in the state of Arizona, USA with the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world (50% in people over 35 years old). In this population, the rate of tooth loss is 15 times higher and the risk of periodontal disease is 3 times higher than other population groups. Overall, the study results showed that the risk of periodontal disease in people with diabetes increased from 2 to 4 times compared with people without the disease.
The factors associated with periodontal tissue destruction were documented as glycemic control, duration of diabetes (>10 years, >35 years), and presence of diabetic complications. On average, 25% of patients with poorly controlled diabetes had an adhesion loss >5 mm compared with 10% of patients with good glycemic control. Notably, the rate of adhesion loss in well-controlled patients was not different from that in non-diabetic patients.
Effect of periodontal infection on diabetes
According to Dr Vo Van Nhan: Periodontal infections cause poor blood sugar control and are an important risk for the chronic complications of diabetes. Studies show that maintaining good glycemic control slows the onset and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and reduces the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death by 16%.
Evidence is beginning to emerge that periodontal disease makes type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes more likely to occur. A 17-year follow-up cohort study found that periodontal disease increased the risk of type 2 diabetes 50-100 times after controlling for all other diabetes risk factors.